1. Examples of mechanical digestion include A. Activity of salivary amylase in the mouth B. Churning and mixing of food in the stomach. C. Action of bile breaking fats into smaller droplets D. Effects of secretin in stimulating the pancreas to release bicarbonate 2. Why are health professionals concerned about the trend toward eating more food away from home? 3. The type of fat that is not solid at room temperature is: A. Protein fat B. Sugar fat C. Amino acid fat D. Saturated fat E. Unsaturated fat 4. Since the 1970s, consumption of refined white sugar has decreased, mostly because 5. When too few calories are consumed, the body will obtain energy from which of the following sources? A. Glycogen B. Fat stores C. Protein from organs D. All of the above E. a and b only 6. Phytochemicals are chemical substances found in _____ that protect human body processes and may benefit health. A. Animals B. the human body C. plants D. both plants and animals E. none of the above 2 7. What is the main difference between passive diffusion and active transport? 8. A person who complains of problems with gas, bloating, and diarrhea if he or she eats breakfast cereal with milk, but not if he or she eats pancakes or waffles, may have 9. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) means: 10. Which of the following combinations do NOT represent complete proteins? A. Grains and seeds B. Grains and beans C. Seeds and beans D. Soybeans and milk E. Eggs and onions 11. For someone with diabetes mellitus, high blood glucose levels may be caused by high intakes of A. Refined carbohydrates B. Any type of food C. Any type of sugar D. Any type of carbohydrate 12. When sucrose is digested it yields: 3 13. A 65 year old was buying an iron supplement for her “weak blood.” She asked the pharmacist what amount was the greatest amount of iron she could take every day. What dietary intake standards could the pharmacist use to provide the best recommendation? A. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) B. Adequate Intakes (AIs) C. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) D. Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) 14. The most important function of the villi of the small intestine is to 15. A slice of bread with 1 gram of fat, 10 grams of carbohydrate, and 2 grams of protein contains how many kcal? 16. Athletes use physical training and dietary manipulation to increase their body stores of energy in the form of A. Glucose B. Glycogen C. Amino acids D. Short-chain fatty acids 17. The type of fat consumed is more important to health than is the total fat intake. A. True B. False 18. Lipoproteins that transport cholesterol to cells are called__________ and lipoproteins that pick up cholesterol from cells are called__________. 19. A small child has normal weight, but his arms and legs are thin, whereas his belly and face appear swollen. His mother tells you that the only food they have had in the house for the past 3 weeks is noodles and some bread. The child probably has 4 20. Inflammation that occurs in response to cholesterol in the artery wall precipitates the development of _________ which can lead to a heart attack or stroke. 21. In the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, what types of grains are encouraged? 22. Percent Daily Values on the Nutrition Facts label are based on a _____-calorie diet. 23. For most Americans, the most significant nutrition concerns are A. lack of interest in making healthy food choices. B. poor availability of fruits and vegetables in many areas. C. excessive intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, sodium, and sugars. D. inadequate intake of key vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. 24. Janet eats beans, grains, fruits, and vegetables, and milk. Her diet is considered 25. Fruits, vegetables and cereals are potent sources of: A. Antioxidants B. Unsaturated fat C. Saturated fat D. Free radicals 26. An essential amino acid: A. Forms a complete protein. B. Is needed only by growing infants and children. C. May prevent dermatitis. D. Cannot be synthesized by the body in sufficient amounts to meet the body’s needs. 5 27. Give the four diagnostic exams for nutrition, and list one example of each. 28. What is a food desert? 29. What is the difference between an 18:0 and 18:2 fatty acid? 30. What is the overall best source of protein from a diet?